Sanctions Research

My other area of research examines why governments threaten and impose economic sanctions, the strategic interaction of firms operating under sanctions, and the effect of economic sanctions on targeted states. I am currently collecting data on all cases of sanctions threats and impositions from 1945-2005 to update the Threat and Imposition of Sanctions data. I am also currently involved in several projects examining how the use of sanctions affects the dynamics of terrorist campaigns and insurgent violence. A list of my published and working papers on sanctions can be found below.

New TIES Data Page


  • Menevis Cilizoglu and Navin Bapat. 2018. Economic Coercion and the Problem of Sanctions-Proofing. Conflict Management and Peace Science. Forthcoming.

  • Elena McLean, Kaisa Hinkkainen, Luis de la Calle, and Navin Bapat. 2018. Economic Sanctions and the Dynamics of Terrorist Campaigns. Conflict Management and Peace Science 35(4): 378-401.

  • Navin A. Bapat, Luis de la Calle, Kaisa Hinkkainen, and Elena McLean. 2016. Economic Sanctions, Transnational Terrorism, and the Incentive to Misrepresent. Journal of Politics 78(1): 249-264.

  • Navin A. Bapat and Bo Ram Kwon. 2015. When are Sanctions Effective? A Bargaining and Enforcement Framework. International Organization 69(1): 131-162.

  • Morgan, T. Clifton, Navin Bapat, and Yoshi Kobayashi. 2014. “The Threat and Imposition of Sanctions: Updating the TIES dataset.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 31(5): 541-558.

  • Navin A. Bapat, Tobias Heinrich, Yoshiaru Kobayashi, and T. Clifton Morgan. 2013. Determinants of Sanctions Effectiveness: Sensitivity Analysis Using New Data. International Interactions 39(1): 79-98.

  • Navin A. Bapat and T. Clifton Morgan. 2009. Multilateral versus Unilateral Sanctions Reconsidered: A Test Using New Data. International Studies Quarterly 53(4):1468-2478

  • T. Clifton Morgan, Navin A. Bapat, and Valentin Krustev. 2009. The Threat and Imposition of Sanctions 1971-2000. Conflict Management and Peace Science 26(1): 92-110.

  • T. Clifton Morgan and Navin A. Bapat. 2003. Imposing Sanctions: States, Firms, and Economic Coercion. International Studies Review 5(4): 65-79.

Working Papers

  • The Sword Cuts both Ways: Sanctions Enforcement and the Costs of Economic Coercion (with Bryan Early, Julia Grauvogel, and Katja Kleinberg)
  • The Design and Enforcement of Sanctions (with Bryan Early, Julia Grauvogel, and Katja Kleinberg)
  • Economic Sanctions and Strategic Target Aggression (with Menevis Cilizoglu)